Archive for April, 2011
Interior painting has a long and colorful history. The techniques and science involving painting treatments has changed, but the desire to decorate our surroundings will always remain a human condition.
Though house paint decorates our homes and protects their surfaces from rot, drying, and the elements, we often take it for granted. But this unassuming product does in fact have a long and interesting history which cannot be easily summarized. However, a short history of paint can be just as fascinating as the long version. In that spirit, we present a few snapshots of house paint’s evolution in order to heighten your appreciation of it, and to provide some perspective on humans’ need to secure and beautify their dwelling places.
Forty millennia ago, cave inhabitants combined various substances with animal fat to make paint, which they used to add pictures and colors to the walls of their crude homes. Red and yellow ochre, hematite, manganese oxide, and charcoal were all employed as color elements. Starting around 3150 B.C., ancient Egyptian painters mixed a base of oil or fat with color elements like ground glass or semiprecious stones, lead, earth, or animal blood. White, black, blue, red, yellow, and green were their hues of choice. At the turn of the 14th century, house painters in England created guilds, which established standards for the profession and kept trade secrets under lock and key. By the 17th century, technology and new practices in house paint grew.
In this era of reality TV and manufactured celebrities, it can be hard to remember the definition of modesty. For the Pilgrims, who populated the American colonies in the 17th century, modesty meant avoiding all displays of joy, wealth, or vanity. Painting one’s house was considered highly immodest and even sacrilegious. In 1630, a rebellious Charlestown preacher decorated his house’s interior with paint and was thus brought up on criminal charges of sacrilege.
This colonial Puritanism could not stop the demand for house paint, though. Unknown authors published “cookbooks” that had recipes for different paints. One popular process, known as the Dutch method, combined lime and ground oyster shells to make a white wash, to which iron or copper oxide – for red or green color, respectively – could be added. Colonial paint “cooks” also used items from the pantry, including milk, egg whites, coffee, and rice, to turn out their illegal product.
Water and oil were the main bases for paint creation from the 17th century to the 19th. Each held certain colors better than others, and there were differences in cost and durability between them, too. Water-based paints were used for ceilings and plaster walls, and oils were used for joinery. Some homeowners wanted walls that looked like wood, marble, or bronze and ceilings that resembled a blue sky with puffy white clouds. Painters of this period would fulfill these requests. Even in 1638, a historic home named “Ham House” in Surrey, England, was renovated. Renovating the home was a multiple-step process, involving the usage of primer, a couple of undercoats, and a finishing coat of paint to show paneling and cornices in the home. At this point in paint’s evolution, pigment and oil were mixed by hand to make a stiff paste – a practice still employed today. If a pigment is well-ground, it should disperse almost entirely in oil. Unfortunately, before the 18th century, hand-grinding could expose painters to white-lead powder, which could result in lead poisoning. Even though lead paint was toxic, it was popular during this time because of its durability, and even today it’s difficult to replicate that hardiness in paint. Painters did eventually add air extraction systems in their workshops to reduce the health risks occurring from grinding lead-based pigment. Not until 1978 did the U.S. finally ban the sale of lead house paint.
Paint production transformed dramatically during the 1700s. The first American paint mill opened in 1700 in Boston, Mass. In 1718, the Englishman Marshall Smith devised a “Machine or Engine for the Grinding of Colours,” which prompted a sort of arms race with regard to grinding pigment efficiently. In 1741, the English company Emerton and Manby publicized the “Horse-Mills” it used to grind pigment, which allowed it to sell paint at prices its rivals couldn’t match. Elizabeth Emerton, one of the owners, said, “One Pound of Colour ground in a Horse-Mill will paint twelve Yards of Work, whereas Colour ground any other Way, will not do half that Quantity .”
As any steampunk aficionado will tell you, the turn of the 19th century meant the rise of steam power. Paint mills were no exception; at this point in time, most of them ran on steam. Another, more significant improvement also occurred around this time: Nontoxic zinc oxide became a viable base for white pigment, thanks to European ingenuity it came to the US in 1855.
By the end of the 1800s, roller mills had started to grind pigment as well as grain, and the guild system that had organized English house painters for centuries became a network of trade unions. Mass production of paint was no longer a pipe dream, and linseed oil, a cheap binding agent that also helped protect wood, made it even easier.
It was in the 19th century that decorating a home with paint became the norm rather than an outlier. After all, paint made surfaces washable and, by sealing in wood’s natural oils, kept walls from becoming either too moist or too dry.
Sherwin Williams, a giant behemoth in the paint world today, was founded in 1866. The company was the first maker of ready-to-use paint; its original product, raw umber in oil, debuted in 1873. Soon after that, cofounder Henry Sherwin developed a resealable tin can.
Benjamin Moore, one of Sherwin Williams top competitors, was born in 1883. Twenty-four years passed, and the company created a research department headed up by one chemist. Since then, Benjamin Moore Paint has contributed a great deal to paint technology, but the company’s color-matching system, unveiled in 1982 and entirely computer-based, is still considered by many to be its most noteworthy achievement in the 21st century, paint remains a formidable moneymaker; roughly $20.9 billion of the stuff was sold in 2006 alone.
Though house paint is most frequently applied to the surfaces of a home, many artists have used it to bring their canvases to life. John Frost, an American painter who began his career in 1919, employed the use of house paint to paint the history of his hometown, a tiny village called Marblehead in Massachusetts. Picasso and some of his peers used house paint in their work. Even some modern artists, like Pollack admirer Nik Ehm, experiment with house paint as a medium.
Mid-20th century is when necessity became the mother of invention. World War II led to a dearth of linseed oil, so chemists combined alcohols and acids to make alkyds, artificial resins that could substitute for natural oil.
Most house paint today is acrylic, or water-based, paint; however, milk paint, which reached the height of its popularity in the 19th century for its unassuming hues, is cropping up again thanks to the environmental movement.
Interior painting has origins dating to pre-history.
Specifically, milk paint doesn’t have any volatile organic compounds, or VOCs. Conventional latex paint, on the other hand, does contain them, which makes it potentially hazardous to humans and pets. Extended exposure to VOCs can lead to organ or nerve damage, and some may be carcinogenic. Thankfully, most paint companies have low or zero VOC paint available. The term “zero-VOC,” by EPA standards, means that each liter of paint contains fewer than 5 grams of volatile compounds. Other non-VOC options include clay- and water-based paints. If you suffer from allergies, you must used low-VOC paint. In fact, they offer practical advantages no matter what your circumstances, since their lack of strong odor lets you occupy freshly painted rooms relatively soon.
Despite its outward simplicity, paint has adjusted over the millennium to conform to our aesthetic, financial, and health needs. While paint may seem basic, it’s almost miraculous that it can elevate our mood so drastically. The next time you open a can of paint, consider how far through time it’s traveled to add a little beauty to your life.
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Hi – it’s time to practise my German again, so here is another German review of a cool site that I found. Hope you like it ;-…. Coole Seite über Hotels in Berlin – perfekt wenn man nach Berlin kommt und sich über die besten Hotels informieren möchte.
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I can probably ditch my new warm coat and maybe use a lighter sleeping bag. Click for more information. Want to know more?
For 40 years they have been refining their line of women’s jackets with new designs from the latest fleece fabrics. Today, a good amount of fleece clothing on the market is synthetic. He left no stone unturned. Lastly, synthetic fleece is more durable. Not only do these jackets retain the soft texture people expect of fleece, but provide water resistance, wind resistance, heat retention, and ventilation.
It features hand warming pockets and ribbed trim to keep you comfortable. It is breathable and wicks out moisture and dries quickly. Men’s fleece jacket are available in different styles and weights depending on your need of insulation. There are many different types of fleece jackets to choose from, and the type of coat you purchase will greatly depend on your needs.
These jackets are made from a special fleece that repels moisture and is very resistant to wear. Its unique high-loft capability gives it the highest weight-to-warmth ratio. It’s true that a high quality fleece jacket can be pricey, but your money will be well spent. The fleece zipper jacket was then gently padded with acid-free tissue paper. Finding the right fleece for your outdoor needs is easy when you consider that any North Face womens fleece jacket is designed and tested to meet the demands of the great outdoors.
I had an ember of a cigarette fall onto the breast of my new warm coat.
They can be worn in any season. They are more affordable then other men’s jackets. It features stand up collar, elastic draw hem for perfect fit and protection against wind. Men’s fleece jacket are available in different styles and weights depending on your need of insulation.
It is available in all team colors to match any outfit. Polartec Wind Pro – If you wear regular fleece you know that the wind can cut right through it. That’s no longer the case with this type of fleece. If mountain climbing is on your agenda, two of the best fleece jackets available are the Arcteryx or the Patagonia.
Fleece Or Softshell – Which Jacket is Better?Man, it’s cold again. It is always flexible and versatile, keeping you trendy even in chilly days. Break a leg.
Today’s fleece jackets are not only made to provide you with the best way to stay warm when the weather turns cold, but they are also fashionable, so you’ll also look great when you wear your fleece jacket. The cost of a fleece jacket varies widely and depends on the features you would like, as well as the brand of jacket, and where you purchase it.
Although fleece jackets appear as if they are extremely heavy, appearances are deceptive, as they are actually very light and easy to wear. The Secret Behind the North Face Women’s Fleece JacketThe North Face women’s fleece jacket has quite the reputation among the outdoor set, and for good reason.
1 tattoo subject areas of notable passion to me personally is pets or animals, a lot of everyday people will have a favourite animal or insect, how might this body art exhibit his or her personalilty?The Rhino a stubborn, powerful yet amazingly swift creature is my favourite, Im not brisk but maybe I can correlate to the stubbornness!The Tiger, king of the jungle both gorgeous and lethal, my ex-girlfriends favorite!And yet precisely how do we obtain an appreciation to a designated creature and precisely what may it depict?
I started with a famous tattoo design, the butterfly, a exquisite and elegant insect greatly fashionable with ladies. Butterflies are sensitive and colourful which explains the reason why their attraction is so potent with people. Although what of the Butterflies history?Its truely a depiction, to think that this creature was once simply a grub battling for survival on mud. Enduring enough time, the grub imprisons itself in a chrysalis, its reward for all this adversity evolution into one of earths most beautiful creatures. .
But what about my own tribal tats?I assumed they just lookenice, to the Maori it depicted a boys coming of age, defining their inner soul. Each individuals tattoos displayed their unique background.
It has definitely made me think in much more detail about what sort of tat I may get inked, in the end many tattoos are influenced from 100’s of years of rich heritage. Most of my information and facts was drawn from Butterfly Tattoo Designs, I am urged to write about my experiences on her blog on this fascinating topic.
information in regards to Freebies Web sites
If you were worried in regards to Free websites they are genuine and they function in identical fashion
1. Open an account
2. Complete an supporter’s offer
3. Refer your friends & family
Those who completes these requirements outside of trying to cheat the system will get a freebie delivered to them.
Why would this web site send me free stuff?
The freebies system is from top to bottom authorized and is not any type of con or pyramid scheme. this is how it works. For all person’s that signs up and finishes an offer, the freebie site is paid a bounty from the advertisers who provide the offers. These offers are almost always free, no obligation trials of their products and services. While some offers are 100% completely freefree, others may cost a few dollars for shipping.
While it might seem strange to have to "pay" for something that you are getting for free, you shouldn’t have to pay greater than about $7 – $10at the most to obtain your freebie, and if you pick a totally free offer you won’t pay a cent.
For every offer that you and anyone that you refer completes, the advertisers pay about $40-$50 to the freebie site. Once you have enough referrals, this money has more than paid for your freebie such as a free iPod touch.
The free iPod Touch cycle explained
1. The Web viewer register at the web site.
2. These companies pay the free iPod touch freebie web site for your offers.
3. The free iPod touch freebie site delivers you your free iPod touch.
4. You and your friends, family, & co-workers complete advertiser’s offers.
Freebie websites makea return in two different ways. When web browser signs up and completes an offer, but later on they try to "cheat" the system by breaching one of the rules listed then they won’t get their free iPod touch, but the freebie website still gets the bounty from their offer and the offers that their referrals completed. In some other cases, someone signs up and completes an offer, but they give up before getting enough referrals to obtain a free iPod touch. Once again, the free iPod touch site gets to keep the money that they generate off advertiser’s offers.